On 1st of May 1707 the Act of Union was passed by the Parliaments of Scotland and England. Since 1603 the two independent nations had shared the same monarch. The first Parliament of the united kingdoms met in October 1707.
That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England shall upon the first day of May next ensuing the date hereof and forever after be United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain And that the Ensigns Armorial of the said United Kingdom be such as Her Majesty shall appoint and the Crosses of St Andrew and St George be conjoined in such manner as Her Majesty shall think fit and used in all Flags Banners Standards and Ensigns both at Sea and LandUnion with England Act 1707
There were 25 parts in the Act of Union, mostly about trade and economics. At this time (18th century) the people had no say in these matters. It was decided by a few.
“An important article concerned a cash payment, called the Equivalent, to Scotland: nearly £400,000 was used to compensate Scotland for sharing the responsibility for England’s national debt of £18 million.” You can read more about that here: Union of Parliaments, National Library of Scotland
One man in Orkney was to use the Treaty of Union to address the wrongs being done to Stromness by Kirkwall – Civil Disobedience in Stromness