“The existence of caves at about 80°N between 350 to 670 m above sea level in a very cold, arid area is a surprise in itself, for they require flowing water to form.”
The lake-bed sediments of Gale Crater on Mars from NASA’s Curiosity rover (credit: NASA/JPL, California Institute of Technology)
The only positive outcome of the thawing of permafrost is that it exposes remains of ancient animals in a virtually intact state, most famously those of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius).
The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) and International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) began drilling into the focus of the Chicxulub impact structure off the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico in 2016.
“Combined with the highly precise growth-ring dating, the climatic changes over the 1700 year lifetime of the kauri tree can be linked to other records of environmental change. “
“The data suggested a loss between 2002 and 2008 of around 109 cubic kilometres of water from the aquifers that support regional irrigation and the livelihoods of about 114 million people “
“In the course of analysing deep-sea cores from the floors of the Arctic Ocean and the northernmost part of the North Atlantic, Walter Geibert and colleagues at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven, and the University of Bremen, Germany revealed a series of sediment layers that were devoid of excess 230Th. “
“The first makers of sophisticated stone tools must have been able to grip between fingers and thumb to manipulate the materials from which they were made”
“Getting an idea of natural climate change through the 11.65 thousand years since the end of the last period of extensive glaciation depends on a variety of indirect measurements or proxies for temperature. “
“rocks of Archaean age form a very small proportion of the Earth’s continental surface, the bulk having been buried by younger rocks.”