Signs of massive hydrocarbon burning at the end of the Triassic

By Steve Drury First PUBLISHED ON March 25, 2022

One of the ‘Big Five’ mass extinctions occurred at the end of the Triassic Period (~201 Ma), whose magnitude matches that of the more famous end-Cretaceous (K-Pg) event. It roughly coincided with the beginning of break-up of the Pangaea supercontinent that was accompanied by a major episode of volcanism preserved in the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). Eastern North America, West Africa and northern South America reveal scattered patches of CAMP flood basalts, swarms of dykes and large intrusive sills. Like all mass extinctions, that at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary left a huge selection of vacant or depleted ecological niches ready for evolution to fill by later adaptive radiation of surviving organisms. Because it coincided with continental break-up and drift, unlike other such events, evolution proceeded in different ways on the various wandering land masses and in newly formed seas (see  an excellent animation of the formation and break-up of Pangaea – move the slider to 3 minutes for the start of break-up). The Jurassic was a period of explosive evolution among all groups of organisms. The most notable changes were among marine cephalopods, to give rise to a bewildering variety of ammonite species, and on land with the appearance and subsequent diversification of dinosaurs.

Pangaea at the end of the Triassic (top) and in Middle Cretaceous times (Credit: screen shots from animation by Christopher Scotese)
Pangaea at the end of the Triassic (top) and in Middle Cretaceous times (Credit: screen shots from animation by Christopher Scotese)

Many scientists have ascribed the origin of these events to the CAMP magmatic activity and the release of huge amounts of methane to trigger rapid global warming. In October 2021 one group focused on a special role for the high percentages of magma that never reached the surface and formed huge intrusions that spread laterally in thick sedimentary sequences to ‘crack’ hydrocarbons to their simplest form, CHor methane. A sedimentary origin of the methane, rather than its escape from the mantle, is indicated by the carbon-isotope ‘signature’ of sediments deposited shortly after the Tr-J event. The lighter isotope 12C rose significantly relative to 13C, suggesting an organic source – photosynthesis selectively takes up the lighter isotope.

By examining the element mercury (Hg) in deep ocean sediments from a Tr-J sedimentary section now exposed in Japan, scientists from China, the US and Norway have added detail to the methane-release hypothesis (Shen, J et al. 2022. Mercury evidence for combustion of organic-rich sediments during the end-Triassic crisisNature Communications, v. 13, article 1307; DOI:10.1038/s41467-022-28891-8). The relative proportions of Hg isotopes strongly suggest that the mercury had been released, as was the methane, from organic-rich sediments rather than from the CAMP magmas (i.e. ultimately from the mantle) through gasification and then burning at the surface.

The hypothesis is enlivened by a separate study (Fox C.P. et al. 2022. Flame out! End-Triassic mass extinction polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reflect more than just fire. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 584, article 117418; DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117418) that sees magmatic heating as being not so important. Calum Fox and colleagues at Curtin University, Western Australia analysed sediments from a Triassic-Jurassic sedimentary sequence near the Severn Bridge in SW England, focusing on polycyclic hydrocarbons in them. Their results show little sign of the kinds of organic chemical remnants of modern wildfires. Instead they suggest a greater contribution from soil erosion by acid rain that increased input of plant debris to a late Triassic marine basin

See also: How a major volcanic eruption paved the way for the rise of the dinosaurs Eureka Alert 23 March 2022;  Soil erosion and wildfire: another nail in coffin for Triassic eraScience Daily, 21 March 2022

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Many thanks to Steve Drury for permission to publish his article and to Bernie Bell for sending it into The Orkney News.

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