On the 21st of August 1968 Warsaw Pact countries completed their invasion of Czechoslovakia. Czech leader Alexander Dubček was arrested, flown to Moscow, interrogated and forced to sign the Moscow Protocols.
Dubček had been elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ), on 5th January 1968. Reforms took place including freedoms which included a loosening of restrictions on the media, speech and travel.
At this time Russia as U.S.S.R. (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) controlled many countries in Europe: the Soviet bloc (Warsaw Pact). Half a million Warsaw Pact countries were sent and they invaded Czechoslovakia over the 20th and 21st of August 1968.
In November 1989, Czechoslovakia returned to a liberal democracy through the Velvet Revolution. On 1st of January 1993, the Czech republic and Slovakia separated peacefully. In 2004 both independent countries joined the EU.